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RFID development history and technical analysis


RFID development history and technical analysis

Under the general trend of intelligent manufacturing, RFID, as a non-contact automatic identification technology, can automatically identify target objects and obtain relevant data through radio frequency signals. More and more attention has been paid by enterprises. Compared with bar code, magnetic card, IC card and other technologies, the application advantage of RFID is that it can realize batch processing, long-distance non-contact reading and writing, large data capacity, reusable, insensitive to pollution, and adapt to various complex working conditions.With the development of technology, RFID has already penetrated into all aspects of our life, and in all walks of life, RFID has become a part of life.


The Development and Change of RFID

RFID technology was born during World War II and was first used by the Royal Air Force to identify its own and allied fighter jets. In order to identify the returning aircraft, the United Kingdom equipped a radio transceiver on the Allied aircraft, and when the interrogator on the control tower sent an interrogation signal to the returning aircraft, the transceiver on the aircraft received the signal. A signal is sent back to the interrogator, and the interrogator can identify friend or foe based on the returned signal received. This is the first RFID identification friend or foe system on record, and the first practical application of the first RFID.

The development of RFID technology can be divided into 10 years:

From 1941 to 1950, the improvement and application of radar gave birth to RFID technology. In 1948, the theoretical foundation of RFID technology was laid.

From 1951 to 1960, the exploratory stage of early RFID technology was mainly in laboratory experimental research.

From 1961 to 1970, the theory of RFID technology was developed, and some application attempts were started.

From 1971 to 1980, RFID technology and product research and development were in a period of great development, and various RFID technology tests were accelerated. Some of the earliest RFID applications emerged.

1981-1990. RFID technology and products have entered the stage of commercial application, and applications of various scales have begun to appear.

From 1991 to 2000, the standardization of RFID technology has been paid more and more attention, RFID products have been widely used, and RFID products have gradually become a part of people's lives.

2001—At present, people pay more and more attention to the standardization issue, RFID products are more diverse, active electronic tags, passive electronic tags and semi-passive electronic tags have been developed, the cost of electronic tags has been continuously reduced, and the scale application industry has expanded.

The theory of RFID technology has been enriched and perfected. Single-chip electronic tags, multi-electronic tag reading, wireless readable and writable, long-distance identification of passive electronic tags, and RFID adapted to high-speed moving objects are becoming a reality.

Analysis of RFID Technology

RFID is the abbreviation of Radio Frequency Identification, that is, radio frequency identification. The RFID system consists of three parts:

Tag (Tag): composed of coupling elements and chips, each tag has a unique electronic code, which is attached to the object to identify the target object;

Reader (Reader): a device that reads (and sometimes writes) tag information, which can be designed as handheld or fixed;

Antenna: transmits radio frequency signals between the tag and the reader.

The principle is that the space (contactless) coupling of the radio frequency signal is realized between the electronic tag and the reader through the coupling element, and the energy transmission and data exchange are realized in the coupling channel according to the timing relationship. There are two types of coupling of RF signals that occur between the reader and the RFID tag:

(1) Inductive coupling: The transformer model realizes the coupling through the space high-frequency alternating magnetic field, which is based on the law of electromagnetic induction;

(2) Electromagnetic backscatter coupling: the principle model of radar, the emitted electromagnetic wave reflects after hitting the target, and carries back the target information at the same time, which is based on the spatial propagation law of electromagnetic waves.

Working principle diagram of inductively coupled RFID system

Advantages of RFID: RFID chips and RFID readers are highly resistant to water, oil and chemicals; the reading of information is not limited by the size and shape of the chip, and does not need to be matched for reading accuracy. The fixed size and printing quality of paper, and RFID tags are developing in miniaturization and various forms to be applied to different products; RFID technology identification is more accurate than traditional smart chips, and the identification distance is more flexible. Penetration and barrier-free reading can be achieved; RFID chip tags can repeatedly add, modify, and delete internally stored data to facilitate the update of information; the internal data content is password-protected, so that the content is not easy to be forged and altered; The data capacity of RFID chips is very large, and with the development of technology, the capacity is still increasing.